Part 10

Man Praying

Chapter 8: The Spoils of War

41. And know that out of all the booty that you may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to God, – and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer, – if you do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing, – the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For God has power over all things. 42. Remember you were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus you met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily God is He Who hears and knows (all things). 43. Remember in your dream God showed them to you as few: if He had shown them to you as many, you would surely have been discouraged, and you would surely have disputed in (your) decision; but God saved (you): for He knows well the (secrets) of (all) hearts. 44. And remember when you met, He showed them to you as few in your eyes, and He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes: that God might accomplish a matter already enacted. For to God do all questions go back (for decision).

 

SECTION 6: Success Does Not Depend on Numbers

 

45. O you who believe! When you meet a force, be firm, and call God in remembrance much (and often); that you may prosper: 46. And obey God and His Messenger; and fall into no disputes, lest you lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For God is with those who patiently persevere: 47. And be not like those who started from their homes insolently and to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the path of God. For God compasses round about all that they do. 48. Remember Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said: "No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am near to you": But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels, and said: "Lo! I am clear of you; lo! I see what you see not; Lo! I fear God. for God is strict in punishment."

 

SECTION 7: The Enemy’s Strength Weakened

 

49. Lo! the hypocrites say, and those in whose hearts is a disease: "These people, – their religion has misled them." But if any trust in God, behold! God is Exalted in might, Wise. 50. If you could see, when the angels take the souls of the Unbelievers (at death), (How) they smite their faces and their backs, (saying): "Taste the penalty of the blazing Fire – 51. "Because of (the deeds) which your (own) hands sent forth; for God is never unjust to His servants: 52. "(Deeds) after the manner of the people of Pharaoh and of those before them: They rejected the Signs of God, and God punished them for their crimes: for God is Strong, and Strict in punishment: 53. "Because God will never change the grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in their (own) souls: and verily God is He Who hears and knows (all things)." 54. (Deeds) after the manner of the people of Pharaoh and those before them": They treated as false the Signs of their Lord: so We destroyed them for their crimes, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh: for they were all oppressors and wrong-doers.

 

55. For the worst of beasts in the sight of God are those who reject Him: They will not believe. 56. They are those with whom you did make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time, and they have not the fear (of God). 57. If you gain the mastery over them in war, disperse, with them, those who follow them, that they may remember. 58. If you fear treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for God loves not the treacherous.

 

SECTION 8: Peace to be Secured by Strength

59. Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them). 60. Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies, and others besides, whom you may not know, but whom God does know. Whatever you shall spend in the cause of God, shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.

61. But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God; for He is One that hears and knows (all things). 62. Should they intend to deceive you, – verily God suffices you: He it is that has strengthened you with His aid and with (the company of) the Believers; 63. And (moreover) He has put affection between their hearts: not if you had spent all that is in the earth, could you have produced that affection, but God has done it: for He is Exalted in Might, Wise. 64. O Messenger; sufficient unto you is God, – (unto you) and unto those who follow you among the Believers.

*******

But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you (also) incline towards peace, and trust in God;

for He is One that hears and knows (all things). (8:61)

*******

SECTION 9: Muslims to Meet Overwhelming Numbers

 

65. O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty among you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding. 66. For the present, God has lightened your (task), for He knows that there is a weak spot in you: But (even so), if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of God; for God is with those who patiently persevere.

 

67. It is not fitting for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he has thoroughly subdued the land. You look for the temporal goods of this world; but God looks to the Hereafter: and God is Exalted in Might, Wise. 68. Had it not been for a previous ordainment from God, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that you took. 69. But (now) enjoy what you took in war, lawful and good: but fear God; for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

 

SECTION 10: Relations of a Muslim State with Others

70. O Prophet! Say to those who are captives in your hands: "If God finds any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful." 71. But if they have treacherous designs against you, (O Messenger!), they have already been in treason against God, and so has He given (you) power over them. And God so He Who has (full) knowledge and wisdom.

 

72. Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of God, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another. As to those who believed but came not into exile, you owe no duty of protection to them until they come into exile; but if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance. And (remember) God sees all that you do. 73. The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless you do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief. 74. Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of God as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, – these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous. 75. And those who accept Faith subsequently, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in your company, – they are of you. But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of God. Verily God is well-acquainted with all things.

*******

O Prophet! Say to those who are captives in your hands: "If God finds any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you: for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful." (8:70)

*******

Chapter 9: Repentance

SECTION 1: Declaration of Immunity

 

1. A (declaration) of immunity from God and His Messenger, to those of the Pagans with whom you have contracted mutual alliances: — 2. Go you, then, for four months, backward and forwards, (as you will), throughout the land, but know you that you cannot frustrate God (by your falsehood) but that God will cover with shame those who reject Him. 3. And an announcement from God and His Messenger, to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage, - that God and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans. If then, you repent, it was best for you; but if you turn away, know you that you cannot frustrate God. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject Faith. 4. (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom you have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided anyone against you. So fulfill your engagements with them to the end of their term: for God loves the righteous.

 

5. But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever you find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 6. If one amongst the Pagans ask you for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the Word of God; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge.

*******

If one amongst the Pagans ask you for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the Word of God; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge. (9:6)

*******

 

SECTION 2: Reasons for the Immunity

 

7. How can there be a league, before God and His Messenger, with the Pagans, except those with whom you made a treaty near the Sacred Mosque? As long as these stand true to you, stand you true to them: for God does love the righteous. 8. How (can there be such a league), seeing that if they get an advantage over you, they respect not in you the ties either of kinship or of covenant? With (fair words from) their mouths they entice you, but their hearts are averse from you; and most of them are rebellious and wicked. 9. The Signs of God have they sold for a miserable price, and (many) have they hindered from His Way: evil indeed are the deeds they have done. 10. In a Believer they respect not the ties either of kinship or of covenant! It is they who have transgressed all bounds.

 

11. But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, - they are your brethren in Faith: (thus) do We explain the Signs in detail, for those who understand. 12. But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your Faith, - fight you the chiefs of Unfaith: for their oaths are nothing to them: that thus they may be restrained.

 

13. Will you not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do you fear them? No, it is God Whom you should more justly fear, if you believe! 14. Fight them, and God will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of Believers. 15. And still the indignation of their hearts. For God will turn (in mercy) to whom He will; and God is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 16. Or think you that you shall be abandoned, as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except God, His Messenger, and the (community of) Believers? But God is well-acquainted with (all) that you do.

*******

But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, - they are your brethren in Faith: (thus) do We explain the Signs in detail, for those who understand. (9:11)

*******

SECTION 3: Idolaters’ Service of the Sacred House

17. It is not for such as join gods with God, to visit or maintain the mosques of God while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: in Fire shall they dwell. 18. The mosques of God shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in God and the Last Day, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, and fear none (at all) except God. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance. 19. Do you make the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque, equal to (the pious service of) those who believe in God and the Last Day, and strive with might and main in the Cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God: and God guides not those who do wrong. 20. Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main, in God’s Cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of God: they are the people who will achieve (salvation). 21. Their Lord does give them glad tidings of a Mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure, and of Gardens for them, wherein are delights that endure: 22. They will dwell therein forever. Verily in God’s presence is a reward, the greatest (of all).

23. O you who believe! Take not for protectors your fathers and your brothers if they love infidelity above Faith: if any of you do so, they do wrong. 24. Say: “If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that you have gained; the commerce in which you fear a decline: or the dwellings in which you delight—are dearer to you than God, or His Messenger, or the striving in His Cause; - then wait until God brings about His decision”: and God guides not the rebellious.

*******

The mosques of God shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in God and the Last Day, establish regular prayers, and practice regular charity, and fear none (at all) except God. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance. (9:18)

*******

SECTION 4: Islam Made Triumphant in Arabia

25. Assuredly God did help you in many battlefields and on the day of Ḥunayn: Behold! Your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught: the land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and you turned back in retreat. 26. But God did pour His calm on the Messenger and on the Believers, and sent down forces which you saw not: He punished the Unbelievers; thus does He reward those without Faith. 27. Again will God, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He will: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

28. O you who believe! Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if you fear poverty, soon will God enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for God is All-Knowing, All-Wise. 29. Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by God and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

*******

Again will God, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He will: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (9:27)

*******

SECTION 5: Islam Will Triumph in the World

30. The Jews call ‘Uzayr a son of God and the Christians call Christ the son of God. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the Unbelievers of old used to say. God’s curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth! 31. They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of God, and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; yet they were commanded to worship but One God: there is no god but He. Praise and glory to Him: (far is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him).

 

32. Fain would they extinguish God’s Light with their mouths, but God will not allow but that His Light should be perfected, even though the Unbelievers may detest (it). 33. It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it). 34. O you who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the Way of God. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the Way of God: announce unto them a most grievous penalty — 35. On the Day when heat will be produced out of that (wealth) in the fire of Hell, and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs — “This is the (treasure) which you buried for yourselves: taste you, then, the (treasures) you buried!”

36. The number of months in the sight of God is twelve (in a year)—so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that God is with those who restrain themselves. 37. Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: the Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by God and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But God guides not those who reject Faith.

*******

The number of months in the sight of God is twelve (in a year)—so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; (9:36)

*******

SECTION 6: The Tabūk Expedition

38. O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that, when you are asked to go forth in the Cause of God, you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter. 39. Unless you go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in your place; but Him you would not harm in the least; for God has power over all things. 40. If you help not (your leader), (it is no matter): for God did indeed help him, when the Unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion; they two were in the cave, and he said to his companion, “Have no fear, for God is with us”: then God sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which you saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of God is exalted to the heights: for God is Exalted in might, Wise. 41. Go you forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the Cause of God. That is best for you, if you (but) knew. 42. If there had been an immediate gain (in sight), and the journey easy, they would (all) without doubt have followed you, but the distance was long, (and weighed) on them. They would indeed swear by God, “If we only could, we should certainly have come out with you”: they would destroy their own souls; for God does know that they are certainly lying.

*******

...But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter. (9:38)

*******

SECTION 7: The Hypocrites

 

43. God give you grace! why did you grant them exemption until those who told the truth were seen by you in a clear light, and you had proved the liars? 44. Those who believe in God and the Last Day ask you for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And God knows well those who do their duty. 45. Only those ask you for exemption who believe not in God and the Last Day, and whose hearts are in doubt, so that they are tossed in their doubts to and fro. 46. If they had intended to come out, they would certainly have made some preparation therefor; but God was averse to their being sent forth; so He made them lag behind, and they were told, “Sit you among those who sit (inactive).” 47. If they had come out with you, they would not have added to your (strength) but only (made for) disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you, and there would have been some among you who would have listened to them. But God knows well those who do wrong. 48. Indeed they had plotted sedition before, and upset matters for you, - until the Truth arrived, and the Decree of God became manifest, much to their disgust.

 

49. Among them is (many) a man who says: “Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial.” Have they not fallen into trial already? And indeed Hell surrounds the Unbelievers (on all sides). 50. If good befalls you, it grieves them; but if a misfortune befalls you, they say, “We took indeed our precautions beforehand,” and they turn away rejoicing. 51. Say: “Nothing will happen to us except what God has decreed for us: He is our Protector”: and on God let the Believers put their trust. 52. Say: “Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things—(martyrdom or victory)? But we can expect for you either that God will send His punishment from Himself, or by our hands. So wait (expectant); we too will wait with you.” 53. Say: “Spend (for the Cause) willingly or unwillingly: not from you will it be accepted: for you are indeed a people rebellious and wicked.” 54. The only reasons why their contributions are not accepted are: that they reject God and His Messenger; that they come to prayer without earnestness; and that they offer contributions unwillingly. 55. Let not their wealth nor their (following in) sons dazzle you: in reality God’s plan is to punish them with these things in this life, and that their souls may perish in their (very) denial of God. 56. They swear by God that they are indeed of you; but they are not of you: yet they are afraid (to appear in their true colors). 57. If they could find a place to flee to, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightaway thereto, with an obstinate rush. 58. And among them are men who slander you in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms: if they are given part thereof, they are pleased, but if not, behold! they are indignant! 59. If only they had been content with what God and His Messenger gave them, and had said, “Sufficient unto us is God! God and His Messenger will soon give us of His bounty: to God do we turn our hopes!” (that would have been the right course).

*******

Say: “Nothing will happen to us except what God has decreed for us: He is our Protector”: and on God let the Believers put their trust. (9:51)

*******

SECTION 8: The Hypocrites

60. Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the Cause of God; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by God, and God is full of knowledge and wisdom. 61. Among them are men who molest the Prophet and say, “He is (all) ear.” Say, “He listens to what is best for you: he believes in God, has faith in the Believers, and is a Mercy to those of you who believe.” But those who molest the Messenger will have a grievous penalty. 62. To you they swear by God. In order to please you: but it is more fitting that they should please God and His Messenger, if they are Believers. 63. Know they not that for those who oppose God and His Messenger, is the Fire of Hell? - wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.

 

64. The Hypocrites are afraid lest a Revelation should be sent down about them, showing them what is (really passing) in their hearts. Say: “Mock you! But verily God will bring to light all that you fear (should be revealed).” 65. If you do question them, they declare (with emphasis): “We were only talking idly and in play.” Say: “Was it at God, and His Signs, and His Messenger, that you were mocking?” 66. Make you no excuses: you have rejected Faith after you had accepted it. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you, for that they are in sin.

 

 

SECTION 9: The Hypocrites

67. The Hypocrites, men and women, (have an understanding) with each other: they enjoin evil, and forbid what is just, and are close with their hands. They have forgotten God; so He has forgotten them. Verily the Hypocrites are rebellious and perverse. 68. God has promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell: therein shall they dwell: sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of God, and an enduring punishment, - 69. As in the case of those before you: they were mightier than you in power, and more flourishing in wealth and children. They had their enjoyment of their portion: and you have of yours, as did those before you; and you indulge in idle talk as they did. They!—their works are fruitless in this world and in the Hereafter, and they will lose (all spiritual good). 70. Has not the story reached them of those before them? - the people of Noah, and ‘Ād, and Thamūd; the people of Abraham, the men of Midian, and the Cities overthrown. To them came their messengers with clear Signs. It is not God Who wrongs them, but they wrong their own souls.

 

71. The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practice regular charity, and obey God and His Messenger. On them will God pour His mercy: for God is Exalted in power, Wise. 72. God has promised to Believers, men and women, Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein, and beautiful mansions in Gardens of everlasting bliss. But the greatest bliss is the good pleasure of God: that is the supreme felicity.

 

SECTION 10: The Hypocrites

 

73. O Prophet! strive hard against the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, - an evil refuge indeed. 74. They swear by God that they said nothing (evil), but indeed they uttered blasphemy, and they did it after accepting Islam; and they meditated a plot which they were unable to carry out: this revenge of theirs was (their) only return for the bounty with which God and His Messenger had enriched them! If they repent, it will be best for them; but if they turn back (to their evil ways), God will punish them with a grievous penalty in this life and in the Hereafter: they shall have none on earth to protect or help them. 75. Amongst them are men who made a covenant with God, that if He bestowed on them of His bounty, they would give (largely) in charity, and be truly amongst those who are righteous. 76. But when He did bestow of His bounty, they became covetous, and turned back (from their covenant), averse (from its fulfillment). 77. So He has put as a consequence hypocrisy into their hearts, (to last) till the Day whereon they shall meet Him: because they broke their covenant with God, and because they lied (again and again). 78. Know they not that God does know their secret (thoughts) and their secret counsels, and that God knows well all things unseen?

 

79. Those who slander such of the believers as give themselves freely to (deeds of) charity, as well as such as can find nothing to give except the fruits of their labor, - and throw ridicule on them, - God will throw back their ridicule on them: and they shall have a grievous penalty. 80. Whether you ask for their forgiveness, or not, (their sin is unforgivable): if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness, God will not forgive them: because they have rejected God and His Messenger: and God guides not those who are perversely rebellious.

 

SECTION 11: The Hypocrites

 

81. Those who were left behind (in the Tabūk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the Messenger of God: they hated to strive and fight, with their goods and their persons, in the Cause of God: they said, “Go not forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is fiercer in heat.” If only they could understand! 82. Let them laugh a little: much will they weep: a recompense for the (evil) that they do. 83. If, then, God bring you back to any of them, and they ask your permission to come out (with you), say: “Never shall you come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: for you preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion: then sit you (now) with those who lag behind.” 84. Nor do you ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected God and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion. 85. Nor let their wealth nor their (following in) sons dazzle you: God’s plan is to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls may perish in their (very) denial of God.

 

86. When a Revelation comes down, enjoining them to believe in God and to strive and fight along with His Messenger, those with wealth and influence among them ask you for exemption, and say: “Leave us (behind): we would be with those who sit (at home).” 87. They prefer to be with (the women), who remain behind (at home): their hearts are sealed and so they understand not. 88. But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper. 89. God has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein: that is the supreme felicity.

 

SECTION 12: The Hypocrites

 

90. And there were, among the desert Arabs (also), men who made excuses and came to claim exemption; and those who were false to God and His Messenger (merely) sat inactive. Soon will a grievous penalty seize the Unbelievers among them. 91. There is no blame on those who are infirm, or ill, or who find no resources to spend (on the Cause), if they are sincere (in duty) to God and His Messenger: no ground (of complaint) can there be against such as do right: and God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 92. Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said, “I can find no mounts for you,” they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses. 93. The ground (of complaint) is against such as claim exemption while they are rich. They prefer to stay with the (women) who remain behind: God has sealed their hearts; so they know not (what they miss).