Part 6

Islamic Washing

Chapter 4: Women

148. God loves not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice has been done; for God is He who hears and knows all things. 149. Whether you publish a good deed, or conceal it, or cover evil with pardon; verily God does blot out (sins) and has power (in the judgment of values). 150. Those who deny God and His Messengers, and (those who) wish to separate God from His Messengers, saying: "We believe in some but reject others": and (those who) wish to take a course midway, - 151. They are in truth (equally) unbelievers; and we have prepared for unbelievers a humiliating punishment. 152. To those who believe in God and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of the Messengers, we shall soon give their (due) rewards: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

 

Section 22: Transgression of the Jews

 

153. The people of the Book ask you to cause a book to descend to them from heaven: indeed, they asked Moses for an even greater (miracle), for they said: "Show us God in public," but they were dazed for their presumption, with thunder and lightning. Yet they worshipped the calf even after clear Signs had come to them; even so We forgave them; and gave Moses manifest proofs of authority. 154. And for their covenant We raised over them (the towering height) of Mount (Sinai); and (on another occasion) We said: "Enter the gate with humility"; and (once again) We commanded them: "Transgress not in the matter of the Sabbath." And We took from them a solemn covenant. 155. (They have incurred divine displeasure): In that they broke their covenant, that they rejected the signs of God, that they slew the Messengers in defiance of right, that they said, "Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve God’s Word; we need no more)"; - No, God has set the seal on their hearts for their blasphemy, and little is it they believe; - 156. That they rejected Faith; that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge; 157. That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of God”; - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow; for of a surety they killed him not: - 158. No, God raised him up unto Himself; and God is Exalted in Power, Wise; - 159. And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them; - 160. For the iniquity of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain (foods) good and wholesome which had been lawful for them; - in that they hindered many from God’s Way; - 161. That they took usury, though they were forbidden; and that they devoured men's substance wrongfully; - we have prepared for those among them who reject faith a grievous punishment.

 

162. But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you: And (especially) those who establish regular prayer and practice regular charity and believe in God and in the Last Day: To them shall We soon give a great reward.

*******

But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you... (4:162)

*******

Section 23: Previous Revelations Bears Out Qur’anic Statements

 

163. We have sent you inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him: we sent inspiration to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms. 164. Of some Messengers We have already told you the story; of others, We have not; - and to Moses God spoke direct; - 165. Messengers who gave good news as well as warning, that mankind, after (the coming) of the Messengers, should have no plea against God. For God is Exalted in Power, Wise.

 

166. But God bears witness that what He has sent unto you, He has sent from His (own) knowledge, and the angels bear witness: but enough is God for a witness. 167. Those who reject Faith and keep off (men) from the way of God, have verily strayed far, far away from the Path. 168. Those who reject Faith and do wrong, - God will not forgive them nor guide them to any Way - 169. Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever. And this to God is easy. 170. O Mankind! The Messenger has come to you in truth from God; believe in him: it is best for you. But if you reject Faith, to God belong all things in the heavens and on earth: and God is All-knowing, All-wise. 171. O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of God anything but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a Messenger of God, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so, believe in God and His Messengers. Say not "Trinity": Desist; it will be better for you: for God is One God. Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is God as a Disposer of affairs.

*******

But God bears witness that what He has sent unto you, He has sent from His (own) knowledge, and the angels bear witness: but enough is God for a witness. (4:166)

*******

Section 24: Prophethood of Jesus

172. Christ disdains not to serve and worship God, nor do the angels, those nearest (to God): those who disdain His worship and are arrogant, - He will gather them all together unto Himself to (answer). 173. But to those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, He will give their (due) rewards, - and more, out of His bounty: But those who are disdainful and arrogant, He will punish with a grievous penalty; nor will they find, besides God, any to protect or help them. 174. O mankind! Verily there has come to you a convincing proof from your Lord: for We have sent unto you a light (that is) manifest. 175. Then those who believe in God, and hold fast to Him, - soon will He admit them to mercy and grace from Himself, and guide them to Himself by a Straight Way.

176. They ask you for a legal decision. Say: God directs (thus) about those who leave no descendants or ascendants as heirs. If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister but no child, she shall have half the inheritance: if (such a deceased was) a woman, who left no child, her brother takes her inheritance: If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance (between them): if there are brothers and sisters, (they share), the male having twice the share of the female. Thus, does God make clear to you (His law), lest you err. And God has knowledge of all things.

*******

Then those who believe in God, and hold fast to Him, - soon will He admit them to mercy and grace from Himself, and guide them to Himself by a Straight Way. (4:175)

*******

Chapter 5: The Table, The Table Spread

Section 1: Perfection of Religion in Submission to God

 

In the name of God,

Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

1. O you who believe! Fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: but animals of the chase are forbidden while you are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for God does command according to His Will and Plan. 2. O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of God, nor of the sacred month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands that mark out such animals, nor the people resorting to the sacred house, seeking of the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when you are clear of the sacred precincts and of pilgrim garb, you may hunt, and let not the hatred of some people in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help you one another in righteousness and piety, but help you not one another in sin and rancor: fear God; for God is strict in punishment. 3. Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which has been invoked the name of other than God; that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless you are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, God is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. 4. They ask you what is lawful to them (as food). Say: lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure: and what you have taught your trained hunting animals (to catch) in the manner directed to you by God; eat what they catch for you, but pronounce the name of God over it: and fear God; for God is swift in taking account. 5. This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time, - when you give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues; if anyone rejects faith, fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter, he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).

*******

(Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers, but chaste women among

the People of the Book, revealed before your time. (5:5)

*******

Section 2: Duty of Uprightness

 

6. O you who believe! When you prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from offices of nature, or you have been in contact with women, and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands; God does not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favor to you, that you may be grateful. 7. And call in remembrance the favor of God unto you, and His covenant, which He ratified with you, when you said: "We hear and we obey": and fear God, for God knows well the secrets of your hearts. 8. O you who believe! Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear God. For God is well-acquainted with all that you do. 9. To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness has God promised forgiveness and a great reward. 10. Those who reject faith and deny our signs will be companions of Hell-fire. 11. O you who believe! Call in remembrance the favor of God unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch out their hands against you, but (God) held back their hands from you: so, fear God. And on God let believers put (all) their trust.

*******

Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you

make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. (5:8)

*******

 

Section 3: Christian Violation of the Covenant

 

12. God did aforetime take a covenant from the Children of Israel, and We appointed twelve captains among them. And God said: "I am with you: if you (but) establish regular prayers, practice regular charity, believe in my Messengers, honor and assist them, and loan to God a beautiful loan, verily I will wipe out from you your evils, and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; but if any of you, after this, resists faith, he has truly wandered from the path of rectitude." 13. But because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them, and made their hearts grow hard; they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the message that was sent them; nor will you cease to find them - barring a few - ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them, and overlook (their misdeeds): for God loves those who are kind.

 

14. From those, too, who call themselves Christians, We did take a covenant, but they forgot a good part of the message that was sent them: so we estranged them, with enmity and hatred between the one and the other, to the Day of Judgment. And soon will God show them what it is they have done. 15. O people of the Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in the Book, and passing over much (that is now unnecessary). There has come to you from God a (new) light and a perspicuous Book, - 16. Wherewith God guides all who seek His good pleasure to ways of peace and safety, and lead them out of darkness, by His Will, unto the light, - guides them to a path that is straight.

 

17. In blasphemy indeed are those that say that God is Christ the son of Mary. Say: "Who then has the least power against God, if His Will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary, his mother, and all - everyone that is on the earth? For to God belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between. He creates what He pleases. For God has power over all things."

 

18. (Both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are sons of God and His beloved." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins? No, you are but men, - of the men He has created: He forgives whom He pleases, and He punishes whom He pleases: and to God belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between: and unto Him is the final goal (of all)" 19. O People of the Book! Now has come unto you, making (things) clear unto you, Our Messenger, after the break in (the series of) Our Messengers, lest you should say: "There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner (from evil)": but now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner (from evil). And God has power over all things.

*******

Wherewith God guides all who seek His good pleasure to ways of peace and safety, and lead them out of darkness, by His Will, unto the light, - guides them to a path that is straight. (5:16)

*******

Section 4: Israelites’ Violation of the Covenant

 

20. Remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Call in remembrance the favor of God unto you, when He produced prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the peoples. 21. "O my people! Enter the holy land which God has assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will you be overthrown, to your own ruin." 22. They said: "O Moses! In this land are a people of exceeding strength: never shall we enter it until they leave it: if (once) they leave, then shall we enter." 23. (But) among (their) God-fearing men were two on whom God had bestowed His grace: they said: "Assault them at the (proper) gate: when once you are in, victory will be yours; but on God put your trust if you have faith." 24. They said: "O Moses! While they remain there, never shall we be able to enter, to the end of time. Go you, and your Lord, and fight you two, while we sit here (and watch)." 25. He said: "O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother: so, separate us from this rebellious people!" 26. God said: "Therefore will the land be out of their reach for forty years: In distraction, will they wander through the land: but sorrow you not over these rebellious people.

 

Section 5: Cain and Abel – Murderous Plots Against the Prophet

 

27. Recite to them the truth of the story of the two sons of Adam. Behold! they each presented a sacrifice (to God): It was accepted from one, but not from the other. Said the latter: "Be sure I will slay you." "Surely," said the former, "(God) does accept the sacrifice of those who are righteous. 28. "If you do stretch your hand against me, to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against you to slay you: for I do fear God, the Cherisher of the worlds. 29. "For me, I intend to let you draw on yourself my sin as well as yours, for you will be among the companions of the Fire, and that is the reward of those who do wrong." 30. The (selfish) soul of the other led him to the murder of his brother: he murdered him and became (himself) one of the lost ones. 31. Then God sent a raven, who scratched the ground, to show him how to hide the shame of his brother. "Woe is me!" said he; "Was I not even able to be as this raven, and to hide the shame of my brother?" Then he became full of regrets - 32. On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our Messengers with Clear Signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land.

*******

... if anyone slew a person - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. (5:32)

*******

33. The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter; 34. Except for those who repent before they fall into your power: in that case, know that God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Section 6: Punishment of Offenders

35. O you who believe! Do your duty to God, seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in His cause: that you may prosper. 36. As to those who reject Faith, - if they had everything on earth, and twice repeated, to give as ransom for the penalty of the Day of Judgment, it would never be accepted of them, theirs would be a grievous penalty. 37. Their wish will be to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom: their penalty will be one that endures.

 

38. As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from God, for their crime: and God is Exalted in Power. 39. But if the thief repents after his crime, and amends his conduct, God turns to him in forgiveness; for God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. 40. Know you not that to God (alone) belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He pleases, and He forgives whom He pleases: and God has power over all things.

 

41. O Messenger! Let not those grieve you, who race each other into unbelief: (whether it be) among those who say "we believe" with their lips but whose hearts have no faith; or it be among the Jews, - men who will listen to any lie, - will listen even to others who have never so much as come to you. They change the words from their (right) times and places: they say, "If you are given this, take it, but if not, beware!" If any one's trial is intended by God, you have no authority in the least for him against God. For such - it is not God’s will to purify their hearts. For them there is disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter - a heavy punishment. 42. (They are fond of) listening to falsehood, of devouring anything forbidden. If they do come to you, either judge between them, or decline to interfere. If you decline, they cannot hurt you in the least. If you judge, judge in equity between them. For God loves those who judge in equity. 43. But why do they come to you for decision, when they have (their own) law before them? - therein is the (plain) command of God; yet even after that, they would turn away. For they are not (really) people of faith.

*******

O you who believe! Do your duty to God, seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in His cause: that you may prosper. (5:35)

*******

Section 7: The Qur’an and Previous Scriptures

 

44. It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed to God’s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of God’s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore, fear not men, but fear Me, and sell not My signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God has revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers. 45. We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what God has revealed, they are (no better than) wrongdoers.

 

46. And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear God. 47. Let the people of the Gospel judge by what God has revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God has revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.

 

48. To you We sent the scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so, judge between them by what God has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that has come to you. To each among you have We prescribed a law and an open way. If God had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He has given you: so, strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to God; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which you dispute; 49. And this (He commands): judge you between them by what God has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that (teaching) which God has sent down to you. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is God’s purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious. 50. Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than God?

*******

If God had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He has given you: so, strive as in a race in all virtues. (5:48)

*******

Section 8: Relations of Muslims with Their Enemies

51. O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: they are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily God guides not a people unjust. 52. Those in whose hearts is a disease - you see how eagerly they run about amongst them, saying: "We do fear lest a change of fortune bring us disaster." Ah! perhaps God will give (you) victory, or a decision according to His will. Then will they repent of the thoughts which they secretly harbored in their hearts. 53. And those who believe will say: "Are these the men who swore their strongest oaths by God, that they were with you?" All that they do will be in vain, and they will fall into (nothing but) ruin.

 

54. O you who believe! If any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will God produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him, - lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of God, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the grace of God, which He will bestow on whom He pleases. And God encompasses all, and He knows all things. 55. Your (real) friends are (no less than) God, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers, - those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship). 56. As to those who turn (for friendship) to God, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers, - it is the fellowship of God that must certainly triumph.

 

Section 9: The Mockers

 

57. O you who believe! Take not for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery or sport, - whether among those who received the Scripture before you, or among those who reject Faith; but fear you God, if you have faith (indeed). 58. When you proclaim your call to prayer, they take it (but) as mockery and sport; that is because they are a people without understanding. 59. Say: "O people of the Book! Do you disapprove of us for no other reason than that we believe in God, and the revelation that has come to us and that which came before (us), and (perhaps) that most of you are rebellious and disobedient?" 60. Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from God; those who incurred the curse of God and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil; - these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!"

 

61. When they come to you, they say: "We believe": but in fact, they enter with a mind against Faith, and they go out with the same; but God knows fully all that they hide. 62. Many of them do you see, racing each other in sin and rancor, and their eating of things forbidden. Evil indeed are the things that they do. 63. Why do not the rabbis and the doctors of Law forbid them from their (habit of) uttering sinful words and eating things forbidden? Evil indeed are their works.

 

64. The Jews say: "God's hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. No, both His hands are widely outstretched: He gives and spends (of His bounty) as He pleases. But the revelation that comes to you from God increases in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them, We have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, God does extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And God loves not those who do mischief. 65. If only the People of the Book had believed and been righteous, We should indeed have blotted out their iniquities and admitted them to gardens of bliss. 66. If only they had stood fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that was sent to them from their Lord, they would have enjoyed happiness from every side. There is from among them a party on the right course: but many of them follow a course that is evil.

 

Section 10: Christian Deviation from the Truth

 

67. O Messenger! Proclaim the (message) which has been sent to you from your Lord. If you did not, you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And God will defend you from men (who mean mischief). For God guides not those who reject Faith. 68. Say: "O People of the Book! You have no ground to stand upon unless you stand fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that has come to you from your Lord." It is the revelation that comes to you from your Lord, that increases in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. But sorrow you not over (these) people without Faith. 69. Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians, - any who believe in God and the Last Day, and work righteousness, - on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 70. We took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent them Messengers; every time there came to them a Messenger with what they themselves desired not - some (of these) they called impostors, and some they (go so far as to) slay. 71. They thought there would be no trial (or punishment); so, they became blind and deaf; yet God (in mercy) turned to them; yet again many of them became blind and deaf. But God sees well all that they do.

*******

Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians, - any who believe in God and the Last Day, and work righteousness, - on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. (5:69)

*******

72. They do blaspheme who say: "(God) is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! Worship God, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with God, - God will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will, for the wrongdoers, be no one to help. 73. They do blaspheme who say: “God is one of three in a Trinity”: for there is no god except One God. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them. 74. Why turn they not to God, and seek His forgiveness? For God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 75. Christ the son of Mary was no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how God does make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth! 76. Say: "Will you worship, besides God, something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But God, - He it is that hears and knows all things." 77. Say: "O people of the Book! Exceed not in your religion the bounds (of what is proper), trespassing beyond the truth, nor follow the vain desires of people who went wrong in times gone by, - who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the even way.

*******

 Christ the son of Mary was no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him... (5:75)

*******

Section 11: Christian Nearness to Islam

 

78. Curses were pronounced on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith, by the tongue of David and of Jesus the son of Mary: because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses. 79. Nor did they (usually) forbid one another the iniquities which they committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they did. 80. You see many of them turning in friendship to the Unbelievers. Evil indeed are (the works) which their souls have sent forward before them (with the result), that God’s wrath is on them, and in torment will they abide. 81. If only they had believed in God, in the Messenger, and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them for friends and protectors, but most of them are rebellious wrongdoers. 82. Strongest among men in enmity to the believers will you find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers will you find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.